Belly Dance Music

The Simsimiyya Music of Port Said

I want to start directly with a YouTube video, because it (and the JWAAD music course) are the inspiration behind this post:

A group of folk musicians from Port Said sing and dance in the video. When we think of Egypt, we often think of its culture as stemming from Pharaonic times. But there are other aspects of its rich culture. Port Said, a city on the mouth of the Suez Canal on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, dates from the building of the canal in the 1800s. It has a distinct culture reflecting its desert surroundings fused with its cosmopolitan seafaring community.

The simsimiyya and tanbura are part of Port Said’s unique culture. They are both types of lyre, a harp-like string instruments originating in Ancient Greece which spread across Europe and the Middle East and beyond. The simsimiyya was commonly found in coastal Bedouin desert communities across North Africa and was adapted by the musicians of Port Said. The simsimiyya and tanbura are very similar – the main difference is that the simsimiyya is simpler, with fewer strings and no tuning pegs. The tanbura features tuning pegs and additional strings which allow it to play Arabic musical modes (maqamat) more easily.

The typical simsimiyya folk group contains a mix of musicians: specialist simsimiyya/tanbura players and a chorus group. The chorus provides the rhythmic accompaniment with a tabla or two, a riqq, toura (finger cymbals) plus handclapping, singing, and dancing. The musicians and instrumentation are flexible, with frequent swapping of instruments and taking of turns getting up to dance.

The relaxed, informal, yet powerful music reflects the cultural context of Port Said. It is very much folk music as lived experience. For example, many songs are about the 1956 Suez crisis when the Egyptian President Nasser nationalised the Suez canal. Performances capture the informal café culture of the city – men singing and dancing in a relaxed atmosphere. You can see that in the video, with the scenes of the city and the sea interspersed with the musicians casually singing and dancing on the beach.

For me, the simsimiyya and the folk music of Port Said have a strong sense of place and meaning tied to its locality. This is quite different to how I usually think of belly dance music. I usually select a piece of music I like and try to stylistically represent the genre (baladi, pop, shaabi, etc.) when I’m dancing. But I don’t think about the sense of place and where the music has come from. Next time you put on a piece of music and dance, why not ask yourself ‘Where is this music from? How does its sense of place sound? How does that influence my dancing?’.


Sources

El Tanbura (Wikipedia)
La Simsimyya de Port-Said (CD review)
A man, a plan, a canal … a band (newspaper article)

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